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Theorems of the month

Green's theorem

For some [math]\displaystyle{ h }[/math]-domain [math]\displaystyle{ \mathbb{D} \subseteq {}^{(\omega)}\mathbb{R}^{2} }[/math], infinitesimal [math]\displaystyle{ h = |{\downarrow}x|= |{\downarrow}y| = |\overset{\rightharpoonup}{\gamma}(s) - \gamma(s)| = \mathcal{O}({\tilde{\omega}}^{m}) }[/math], sufficiently large [math]\displaystyle{ m \in \mathbb{N}^{*}, (x, y) \in \mathbb{D}, \mathbb{D}^{-} := \{(x, y) \in \mathbb{D} : (x + h, y + h) \in \mathbb{D}\} }[/math], and a simply closed path [math]\displaystyle{ \gamma: [a, b[\rightarrow {\downarrow} \mathbb{D} }[/math] followed anticlockwise, choosing [math]\displaystyle{ \overset{\rightharpoonup}{\gamma}(s) = \gamma(\overset{\rightharpoonup}{s}) }[/math] for [math]\displaystyle{ s \in [a, b[, A \subseteq {[a, b]}^{2} }[/math], the following equation holds for sufficiently [math]\displaystyle{ \alpha }[/math]-continuous functions [math]\displaystyle{ u, v: \mathbb{D} \rightarrow \mathbb{R} }[/math] with not necessarily continuous [math]\displaystyle{ {\downarrow} u/{\downarrow} x, {\downarrow} u/{\downarrow} y, {\downarrow} v/{\downarrow} x }[/math] and [math]\displaystyle{ {\downarrow} v/{\downarrow} y }[/math]

[math]\displaystyle{ {\uparrow}_{\gamma }{(u\,{\downarrow}x+v\,{\downarrow}y)}={\uparrow}_{(x,y)\in {\mathbb{D}^{-}}}{\left( \tfrac{{\downarrow} v}{{\downarrow} x}-\tfrac{{\downarrow} u}{{\downarrow} y} \right){\downarrow}(x,y)}. }[/math]

Proof:

Only [math]\displaystyle{ \mathbb{D} := \{(x, y) : r \le x \le s, f(x) \le y \le g(x)\}, r, s \in {}^{(\omega)}\mathbb{R}, f, g : {\downarrow} \mathbb{D} \rightarrow {}^{(\omega)}\mathbb{R} }[/math] is proved, since the proof is analogous for each case rotated by [math]\displaystyle{ \check{\pi} }[/math]. Every [math]\displaystyle{ h }[/math]-domian is union of such sets. Simply showing

[math]\displaystyle{ {\uparrow}_{\gamma }{u\,{\downarrow}x}=-{\uparrow}_{(x,y)\in {\mathbb{D}^{-}}}{\tfrac{{\downarrow} u}{{\downarrow} y}{\downarrow}(x,y)}. }[/math]

is sufficient because the other relation is given analogously. Neglecting the regions of [math]\displaystyle{ \gamma }[/math] with [math]\displaystyle{ {\downarrow}x = 0 }[/math] and [math]\displaystyle{ s := h(u(r, g(r)) - u(t, g(t))) }[/math] shows

[math]\displaystyle{ -{\uparrow}_{\gamma }{u\,{\downarrow}x}-s={\uparrow}_{t}^{r}{u(x,g(x)){\downarrow}x}-{\uparrow}_{t}^{r}{u(x,f(x)){\downarrow}x}={\uparrow}_{t}^{r}{{\uparrow}_{f(x)}^{g(x)}{\tfrac{{\downarrow} u}{{\downarrow} y}}{\downarrow}y{\downarrow}x}={\uparrow}_{(x,y)\in {\mathbb{D}^{-}}}{\tfrac{{\downarrow} u}{{\downarrow} y}{\downarrow}(x,y)}.\square }[/math]

Singmaster's theorem

There are maximally 8 distinct binomial coefficients of the same value > 1.

Proof:

The existence is clear due to [math]\displaystyle{ \tbinom{3003}{1} = \tbinom{78}{2} = \tbinom{15}{5} = \tbinom{14}{6} }[/math] and the structure of Pascal's triangle. With [math]\displaystyle{ p \in {}^{\omega }{\mathbb{P}}, a,b ,c, d \in {}^{\omega }{\mathbb{N^*}}, \hat{a} \le r := p - b, \hat{a} \lt \hat{c} \le n := p - d, b \lt d }[/math] and [math]\displaystyle{ s \notin \mathbb{P} }[/math] for every [math]\displaystyle{ s \in [\max(r - \acute{a},\grave{n}), r] }[/math], Stirling's formula [math]\displaystyle{ {n!}^2\sim\pi(\hat{n}+\tilde{3}){(\tilde{\epsilon}n)}^{\hat{n}} }[/math] and the prime number theorem imply [math]\displaystyle{ \omega\tbinom{r}{a} \le {}_\epsilon\omega\tbinom{n}{c} }[/math] for [math]\displaystyle{ p \rightarrow \omega.\square }[/math]

Recommended reading

Nonstandard Mathematics